Repository logo

In-vitro gadolinium retro-microdialysis in agarose gel—a human brain phantom study

Published version

Repository DOI

Change log


Zimphango, Chisomo 
Mada, Marius O 
Sawiak, Stephen J 
Giorgi-Coll, Susan 
Carpenter, T Adrian 


jats:secjats:titleRationale and objectives</jats:title>jats:pCerebral microdialysis is a technique that enables monitoring of the neurochemistry of patients with significant acquired brain injury, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI) and subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Cerebral microdialysis can also be used to characterise the neuro-pharmacokinetics of small-molecule study substrates using retrodialysis/retromicrodialysis. However, challenges remain: (i) lack of a simple, stable, and inexpensive brain tissue model for the study of drug neuropharmacology; and (ii) it is unclear how far small study-molecules administered via retrodialysis diffuse within the human brain.</jats:p></jats:sec>jats:secjats:titleMaterials and methods</jats:title>jats:pHere, we studied the radial diffusion distance of small-molecule gadolinium-DTPA from microdialysis catheters in a newly developed, simple, stable, inexpensive brain tissue model as a precursor for in-vivo studies. Brain tissue models consisting of 0.65% weight/volume agarose gel in two kinds of buffers were created. The distribution of a paramagnetic contrast agent gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) perfusion from microdialysis catheters using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was characterized as a surrogate for other small-molecule study substrates.</jats:p></jats:sec>jats:secjats:titleResults</jats:title>jats:pWe found the mean radial diffusion distance of Gd-DTPA to be 18.5 mm after 24 h (jats:italicp</jats:italic> &lt; 0.0001).</jats:p></jats:sec>jats:secjats:titleConclusion</jats:title>jats:pOur brain tissue model provides avenues for further tests and research into infusion studies using cerebral microdialysis, and consequently effective focal drug delivery for patients with TBI and other brain disorders.</jats:p></jats:sec>


Peer reviewed: True


retromicrodialysis, diffusion, microdialysis, MRI, brain phantom, agarose, agar, gadolinium

Journal Title

Frontiers in Radiology

Conference Name

Journal ISSN


Volume Title



Frontiers Media SA