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The Salmonella transmembrane effector SteD hijacks AP1-mediated vesicular trafficking for delivery to antigen-loading MHCII compartments.

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Cerny, Ondrej 
Liu, Mei 
Blundell, Samkeliso 
Gallagher, Alanna E 


SteD is a transmembrane effector of the Salmonella SPI-2 type III secretion system that inhibits T cell activation by reducing the amounts of at least three proteins -major histocompatibility complex II (MHCII), CD86 and CD97 -from the surface of antigen-presenting cells. SteD specifically localises at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and MHCII compartments; however, the targeting, membrane integration and trafficking of SteD are not understood. Using systematic mutagenesis, we identify distinct regions of SteD that are required for these processes. We show that SteD integrates into membranes of the ER/Golgi through a two-step mechanism of membrane recruitment from the cytoplasm followed by integration. SteD then migrates to and accumulates within the TGN. From here it hijacks the host adaptor protein (AP)1-mediated trafficking pathway from the TGN to MHCII compartments. AP1 binding and post-TGN trafficking require a short sequence in the N-terminal cytoplasmic tail of SteD that resembles the AP1-interacting dileucine sorting signal, but in inverted orientation, suggesting convergent evolution.



Major Histocompatibility Complex, Protein Transport, Salmonella, Type III Secretion Systems, trans-Golgi Network

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PLoS Pathog

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Public Library of Science (PLoS)