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The High-Risk Type 1 Diabetes HLA-DR and HLA-DQ Polymorphisms Are Differentially Associated With Growth and IGF-I Levels in Infancy: The Cambridge Baby Growth Study.

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Eleftheriou, Antigoni 
Hughes, Ieuan A 
Ong, Ken K 


OBJECTIVE: This study explored the link between HLA polymorphisms that predispose to type 1 diabetes and birth size, infancy growth, and/or circulating IGF-I in a general population-based birth cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The Cambridge Baby Growth Study is a prospective observational birth cohort study that recruited 2,229 newborns for follow-up in infancy. Of these, 612 children had DNA available for genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms in the HLA region that capture the highest risk of type 1 diabetes: rs17426593 for DR4, rs2187668 for DR3, and rs7454108 for DQ8. Multivariate linear regression models at critical ages (cross-sectional) and mixed-effects models (longitudinal) were performed under additive genetic effects to test for associations between HLA polymorphisms and infancy weight, length, skinfold thickness (indicator of adiposity), and concentrations of IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). RESULTS: In longitudinal models, the minor allele of rs2187668 tagging DR3 was associated with faster linear growth (P = 0.007), which was more pronounced in boys (P = 3 × 10-7) than girls (P = 0.07), and was also associated with increasing IGF-I (P = 0.002) and IGFBP-3 (P = 0.003) concentrations in infancy. Cross-sectionally, the minor alleles of rs7454108 tagging DQ8 and rs17426593 tagging DR4 were associated with lower IGF-I concentrations at age 12 months (P = 0.003) and greater skinfold thickness at age 24 months (P = 0.003), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The variable associations of DR4, DR3, and DQ8 alleles with growth measures and IGF-I levels in infants from the general population could explain the heterogeneous growth trajectories observed in genetically at-risk cohorts. These findings could suggest distinct mechanisms involving endocrine pathways related to the HLA-conferred type 1 diabetes risk.



Child, Child, Preschool, Cohort Studies, Cross-Sectional Studies, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1, Female, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, HLA-DQ Antigens, HLA-DR Antigens, HLA-DR3 Antigen, HLA-DR4 Antigen, Humans, Infant, Infant, Newborn, Insulin-Like Growth Factor I, Male, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide

Journal Title

Diabetes Care

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American Diabetes Association


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MRC (MC_UU_00006/2)
Medical Research Council (G1001995)
Medical Research Council (MC_UU_12015/2)
Medical Research Council (MC_U106179472)
Medical Research Council (G1001995/1)
This work was supported by the Medical Research Council (MR/K50127X/1) and the Raymond & Beverly Sackler Foundation. The CBGS has been funded by the European Union Framework 5 (QLK4-1999-01422), the Medical Research Council (7500001180, G1001995, U106179472) and the World Cancer Research Fund International (2004/03). K.K.O. is supported by the Medical Research Council (MC_UU_12015/2). DBD is supported by funding from the Innovative Medicines Initiative 2 Joint Undertaking under grant agreement No 115797 (INNODIA) and No 945268 (INNODIA HARVEST).
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