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Implementation of an intervention to reduce urine dipstick testing in aged care homes: a qualitative study of enablers and barriers, and strategies to enhance delivery.

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Williams, Kate 
Francis, Jill J 
Wroth, Melanie 
Breen, Juanita 


OBJECTIVE: The 'To Dip or Not to Dip' (TDONTD) intervention aims to reduce antibiotic prescribing for urinary tract infection (UTI) by reducing low-value dipstick testing. The aims of this study were to use a qualitative approach to (1) evaluate potential influences on the delivery of the TDONTD intervention in Australian residential aged care homes (RACHs) by identifying perceived barriers and enablers to delivery and acceptance; and (2) propose intervention strategies to address barriers and enhance enablers. DESIGN: A qualitative before-after process evaluation of a multisite implementation study using interviews with nurse and pharmacist implementers. SETTING: This study was conducted in 12 Australian RACHs. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 17 on-site nurse champions and 4 pharmacists (existing contracted providers). INTERVENTION: Resources from England's TDONTD intervention were adapted for an Australian context. Key resources delivered were case-based education, staff training video, clinical pathway and an audit tool. RESULTS: Key barriers to TDONTD were beliefs about nursing capabilities in diagnosing infection, beliefs about consequences (fear of missing infection) and social influences (pressure from family, doctors and hospitals). Key enablers were perceived increased nurse and carer knowledge (around UTI and asymptomatic bacteriuria), resources from a credible source, empowerment of nurse champions to apply knowledge and skills in delivering operational change initiatives, pharmacist-delivered education and organisational policy or process change. Of TDONTD's key components, the clinical pathway substituted dipstick testing in diagnosing UTI, delivery of case-based education was enhanced by their attendance and support of the intervention and the antibiotic audit tool generated feedback that champions shared with staff. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the core components of TDONTD and strategies to enhance delivery and overcome barriers. To further reduce barriers to TDONTD, broader advocacy work is required to raise awareness of dipstick testing as a low-value test in older persons and by linking it to healthcare professionals and consumer education.



aged, clinical decision-making, clinical pharmacology, qualitative research, urinary tract infections, Aged, Humans, Aged, 80 and over, Australia, Homes for the Aged, Health Personnel, Qualitative Research, Anti-Bacterial Agents

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BMJ Open

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