Associations between the maternal circulating lipid profile in pregnancy and fetal imprinted gene alleles: a cohort study.


Type
Article
Change log
Authors
Koulman, Albert 
Lu, Liangjian 
Jenkins, Benjamin 
Furse, Samuel 
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Imprinted genes, which are expressed in a parent of origin-specific manner, are thought to mediate the genetic priorities of each parent in pregnancy. Recently we reported that some fetal imprinted gene variants are associated with maternal glucose concentrations and blood pressures in pregnancy. We suggest that the conflict between the effects of paternal and maternal transmitted genes starts at conception and may already be evident in measures of maternal metabolism in early pregnancy, before gestational diabetes is manifest. METHODS: Lipid fractions in maternal non-fasting serum collected around week 15 of pregnancy were profiled using direct infusion mass spectrometry in a subset Discovery Cohort (n = 200) of women from the Cambridge Baby Growth Study using direct infusion mass spectrometry. Associations between 151 haplotype-tag fetal polymorphisms in 16 imprinted genes and lipids were determined using partial least squares discriminant analysis. Variable importance in projection scores were used to identify those lipid species that contribute most to the underlying variation in the lipid profile and the concentrations of these species tested for associations with fetal imprinted gene alleles using linear regression. In an internal Validation Cohort (n = 567 women from the same cohort) the lipid fraction was profiled using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and tested for associations with the same fetal imprinted gene variants as above, followed by meta-analysis of associations from the Discovery and Validation Cohorts. RESULTS: The most significant associations were between a monounsaturated triglyceride (44:1) and both paternally-transmitted fetal H19 rs7950932 (R = 0.14, p = 2.9 × 10- 3, n = 386) and maternally-transmitted fetal FAM99A rs7131362 (R = 0.18, p = 6.2 × 10- 3, n = 351; association with maternal-untransmitted allele R = 0.08, p = 0.07, n = 328). This same triglyceride isoform was also associated with subsequent week 28 fasting glucose concentrations (R = 0.09, p = 9.9 × 10- 3, n = 673) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (R = 0.09, p = 0.01, n = 664). CONCLUSIONS: Fetal imprinted genes may influence maternal circulating clinically relevant triglyceride concentrations early in pregnancy.

Description
Keywords
Development, Gestational diabetes, Lipid profiling, Lipidomics, Parent-of-origin, Triglycerides, Adult, Alleles, Cohort Studies, Diabetes, Gestational, Female, Fetus, Gene Frequency, Genomic Imprinting, Genotype, Haplotypes, Humans, Lipids, Mass Spectrometry, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Pregnancy
Journal Title
Reprod Biol Endocrinol
Conference Name
Journal ISSN
1477-7827
1477-7827
Volume Title
16
Publisher
Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Sponsorship
Evelyn Trust (unknown)
National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) (unknown)
Wellbeing of Women (RG1644)
Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (CUH) (146281)
Mothercare Charitable Foundation (unknown)
MRC Epidemiology Unit (7500001180)
Medical Research Council (MC_UU_12015/2)
National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) (via West Anglia Comprehensive Local Research Network (CLRN)) (UKCRN 11822)
Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (CUH)
Medical Research Council (G1001995)
European Commission (201444)
Newlife Foundation for Disabled Children (SG/13-14/08)
Newlife Foundation for Disabled Children (44013)
Diabetes UK (11/0004241 P/O: 0000012911)
Medical Research Council (MC_UU_12012/5)
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/P028195/1)
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/M027252/2)
Medical Research Council (MC_UU_12015/7)
Diabetes UK (11/0004241)
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/M027252/1)
The genotyping part of the Cambridge Baby Growth Study was funded by the Evelyn Trust (EW9035322), Diabetes U.K. (11/0004241) and the Wellbeing of Women (the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, U.K.) (RG1644). The lipidomics assays were supported by the Medical Research Council (UD99999906) and Cambridge Lipidomics Biomarker Research Initiative (G0800783). Other core funding has come from the Medical Research Council (G1001995); European Union Framework 5 (QLK4-1999-01422); the Mothercare Charitable Foundation (RG54608); Newlife Foundation for Disabled Children (07/20) and the World Cancer Research Fund International (2004/03). In addition there has been support from National Institute for Health Research Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre. KO is supported by the Medical Research Council (Unit Programme number: MC_UU_12015/2).