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Towards automatic home-based sleep apnea estimation using deep learning.

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Retamales, Gabriela  ORCID logo
Gavidia, Marino E 
Montanari, Arthur N  ORCID logo


Apnea and hypopnea are common sleep disorders characterized by the obstruction of the airways. Polysomnography (PSG) is a sleep study typically used to compute the Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI), the number of times a person has apnea or certain types of hypopnea per hour of sleep, and diagnose the severity of the sleep disorder. Early detection and treatment of apnea can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality. However, long-term PSG monitoring is unfeasible as it is costly and uncomfortable for patients. To address these issues, we propose a method, named DRIVEN, to estimate AHI at home from wearable devices and detect when apnea, hypopnea, and periods of wakefulness occur throughout the night. The method can therefore assist physicians in diagnosing the severity of apneas. Patients can wear a single sensor or a combination of sensors that can be easily measured at home: abdominal movement, thoracic movement, or pulse oximetry. For example, using only two sensors, DRIVEN correctly classifies 72.4% of all test patients into one of the four AHI classes, with 99.3% either correctly classified or placed one class away from the true one. This is a reasonable trade-off between the model's performance and the patient's comfort. We use publicly available data from three large sleep studies with a total of 14,370 recordings. DRIVEN consists of a combination of deep convolutional neural networks and a light-gradient-boost machine for classification. It can be implemented for automatic estimation of AHI in unsupervised long-term home monitoring systems, reducing costs to healthcare systems and improving patient care.


Acknowledgements: The authors acknowledge support from the Luxembourg National Research Fund (FNR) through grants PRIDE15/10907093/CriTiCS, AFR/17022833 and INTER/DFG/21/15020234, the latter is co-funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) project number 458610525. High performance computing experiments for model training and evaluation presented in this report were carried out using the HPC facilities of the University of Luxembourg46.


4203 Health Services and Systems, 42 Health Sciences, Sleep Research, Bioengineering, Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Information Technology R&D (NITRD), Lung, 3 Good Health and Well Being

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NPJ Digit Med

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Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Fonds National de la Recherche Luxembourg (National Research Fund) (AFR/17022833)
Fonds National de la Recherche Luxembourg (National Research Fund) (PRIDE15/10907093/CriTiCS)
Fonds National de la Recherche Luxembourg (National Research Fund) (INTER/DFG/21/15020234)