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Levofloxacin induces differential effects in the transcriptome between the gut, peripheral and axial joints in the Spondyloarthritis DBA/1 mice: Improvement of intestinal dysbiosis and the overall inflammatory process.

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González-Chávez, Susana Aideé 
Salas-Leiva, Joan S 
Salas-Leiva, Dayana E 
López-Loeza, Salma Marcela 
Sausameda-García, Jasanai 


To analyze the effect of levofloxacin-induced intestinal microbiota modifications on intestinal, joint, and systemic inflammation in the DBA/1 mice with spontaneous arthritis. The study included two groups of mice, one of which received levofloxacin. The composition and structure of the microbiota were determined in the mice's stool using 16S rRNA sequencing; the differential taxa and metabolic pathway between mice treated with levofloxacin and control mice were also defied. The effect of levofloxacin was evaluated in the intestines, hind paws, and spines of mice through DNA microarray transcriptome and histopathological analyses; systemic inflammation was measured by flow cytometry. Levofloxacin decreased the pro-inflammatory bacteria, including Prevotellaceae, Odoribacter, and Blautia, and increased the anti-inflammatory Muribaculaceae in mice's stool. Histological analysis confirmed the intestinal inflammation in control mice, while in levofloxacin-treated mice, inflammation was reduced; in the hind paws and spines, levofloxacin also decreased the inflammation. Microarray showed the downregulation of genes and signaling pathways relevant in spondyloarthritis, including several cytokines and chemokines. Levofloxacin-treated mice showed differential transcriptomic profiles between peripheral and axial joints and intestines. Levofloxacin decreased the expression of TNF-α, IL-23a, and JAK3 in the three tissues, but IL-17 behaved differently in the intestine and the joints. Serum TNF-α was also reduced in levofloxacin-treated mice. Our results suggest that the microbiota modification aimed at reducing pro-inflammatory and increasing anti-inflammatory bacteria could potentially be a coadjuvant in treating inflammatory arthropathies.


Acknowledgements: The authors thank Lorena Chávez, José Luis Santillán, Simón Guzmán, and Jorge Ramírez for the microarray analysis.


Research Article, Biology and life sciences, Medicine and health sciences, Research and analysis methods, Computer and information sciences

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PLoS One

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Public Library of Science (PLoS)