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Onboard pre-combustion carbon capture with combined-cycle gas turbine power plant architectures for LNG-fuelled ship propulsion

Accepted version
Peer-reviewed

Type

Article

Change log

Authors

Chin Law, L 
Mengoni, A 

Abstract

This paper investigates the concept of pre-combustion carbon capture (Pre-CCS) with a combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) propulsion system to achieve energy efficient carbon capture onboard a Liquid Natural Gas fuelled vessel. A basic CCGT model with energy efficiency of 51.6% when using LNG as fuel was integrated with a Pre-CCS system composed of a steam methane reformer, water-gas shift reactors, pressure swing adsorption (SMR-PSA), and liquid CO2 storage. Various waste heat utilisation schemes integrated with the CCGT-reformer were modelled in Aspen HYSYS. The modelling of the waste heat recovery networks as energy streams integrating between various processes and unit of operations has facilitated a closed-loop simulation of various systems. It was concluded that a proper utilisation of the high-grade heat from the GT exhaust and from the reformer is crucial to improve the overall energy efficiency and carbon capture rate, exemplified by a scheme where the heating needs for the SMR and the cooling needs from the water-gas-shift reactors are fully integrated. When optimised, the integrated system had an overall energy efficiency of 41.5% and 43.2% (i.e. an efficiency loss of 10.2-10.5 percentage points from the base CCGT system) accompanied with specific GHG emission reduction of 51.2% and 52.3% for operation of the GT at a turbine entry temperature of 1700K and 1850K, respectively. Intermediate levels of reforming, where the GT uses a mix of LNG and reformate gases, were also simulated, showing an almost linear evolution from the 100% LNG feed to the GT to the 100% reformate case. Such a strategy could be used for gradual evolution to meet the required CO2 reduction timeline. It was determined that the 100% reformate case provides the highest CO2 capture rate. Estimates of other emissions from the GT assuming typical combustor residence times for the whole range of fuel blends were also carried out, showing that the overall greenhouse gas emission is dominated by CO2, given that the GT emits negligible N2O and unburnt methane. Some capital cost estimates were also made to determine the unit price of hydrogen fuel produced onboard, suggesting that the CAPEX was not prohibitive. These findings support the pre-combustion CCS - CCGT integrated system as a promising long-term decarbonisation and propulsion strategy to comply with emissions regulations, displaying good performance in terms of cost, energy consumption, and CO2 reduction. The scalability and adaptability of the proposed system for existing and new-built ships across the decarbonisation timeline is also discussed.

Description

Keywords

4004 Chemical Engineering, 40 Engineering, 7 Affordable and Clean Energy, 13 Climate Action

Journal Title

Applied Thermal Engineering

Conference Name

Journal ISSN

1359-4311
1873-5606

Volume Title

Publisher

Elsevier BV
Sponsorship
National Research Foundation of Singapore