The risk of cardiovascular disease in women after miscarriage, stillbirth, and therapeutic abortion: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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Muehlschlegel, Charlotte 
Kyriacou, Harry 
Al-Mohammad, Abdulrahman 
Foster-Davies, Lowri A 
Simmons-Jones, Fiona 

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in women, responsible for approximately a third of all female deaths. Pregnancy complications are known to be associated with a greater risk of incident CVD in mothers. However, the relationships between pregnancy loss due to miscarriage, stillbirth, or therapeutic abortion, and future maternal cardiovascular health are under-researched. This study seeks to provide an up-to-date systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between these three forms of pregnancy loss and the subsequent development of CVD. METHODS: This systematic review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis checklist (PRISMA) and the Meta-analyses Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) Checklist. A systematic search will be undertaken using publications identified in MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, Web of Knowledge, the CINAHL Nursing Database, and the Cochrane Library. The eligibility of each publication will be determined by predefined selection criteria. The quality of the included studies will be rated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Pooled measures of association will be computed using random-effects model meta-analyses. Between-study heterogeneity will be assessed using the I2 statistic and the Cochrane χ2 statistic. Small study effects will be evaluated for meta-analyses with sufficient studies through the use of funnel plots and Egger's test. DISCUSSION: The results of this systematic review will discuss the long-term risks of multiple types of cardiovascular disease in women who have experienced miscarriage, stillbirth, and/or therapeutic abortion. It will contribute to the growing field of cardio-obstetrics as the first to consider the full breadth of literature regarding the association between all forms of pregnancy loss and future maternal cardiovascular disease. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration number [CRD42020167587].

Abortion, Cardiovascular disease, Coronary heart disease, Meta-analysis, Miscarriage, Protocol, Stillbirth, Stroke, Systematic review, Abortion, Induced, Abortion, Spontaneous, Abortion, Therapeutic, Cardiovascular Diseases, Female, Humans, Meta-Analysis as Topic, Observational Studies as Topic, Pregnancy, Stillbirth, Systematic Reviews as Topic
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Syst Rev
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Springer Science and Business Media LLC
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Medical Research Council (MR/L003120/1)
British Heart Foundation (None)
British Heart Foundation (RG/18/13/33946)
COW received funding from Homerton College, University of Cambridge. This work was supported by core funding from: the UK Medical Research Council (MR/L003120/1), the British Heart Foundation (RG/13/13/30194; RG/18/13/33946) and the National Institute for Health Research (Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre at the Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust). The funders had no role in the development of the protocol.