Energetically Consistent Calculations for Oblique Impact in Unbalanced Systems With Friction
jats:pAnalytical mechanics is used to derive original 3D equations of motion that represent impact at a point in a system of rigid bodies. For oblique impact between rough bodies in an eccentric (unbalanced) configuration, these equations are used to compare the calculations of energy dissipation obtained using either the kinematic, the kinetic, or the energetic coefficient of restitution (COR); eN,eP, or e*. Examples demonstrate that for equal energy dissipation by nonfrictional sources, either eN≤e≤eP or eP≤e≤eN depending on whether the unbalance of the impact configuration is positive or negative relative to the initial direction of slip. Consequently, when friction brings initial slip to rest during the contact period, calculations that show energy gains from impact can result from either the kinematic or the kinetic COR. On the other hand, the energetic COR always correctly accounts for energy dissipation due to both hysteresis of the normal contact force and friction, i.e., it is energetically consistent.</jats:p>
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