Long-term effectiveness and safety of metreleptin in the treatment of patients with generalized lipodystrophy.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to summarize the effectiveness and safety of metreleptin in patients with congenital or acquired generalized lipodystrophy. METHODS: Patients (n = 66) aged ≥6 months had lipodystrophy, low circulating leptin, and ≥1 metabolic abnormality (diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, or hypertriglyceridemia). Metreleptin dose (once or twice daily) was titrated to a mean dose of 0.10 mg/kg/day with a maximum of 0.24 mg/kg/day. Means and changes from baseline to month 12 were assessed for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting triglycerides (TGs), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Additional assessments included the proportions of patients achieving target decreases in HbA1c or fasting TGs at months 4, 12, and 36, medication changes, and estimates of liver size. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were recorded. RESULTS: Significant mean reductions from baseline were seen at month 12 for HbA1c (-2.2%, n = 59) and FPG (-3.0 mmol/L, n = 59) and mean percent change in fasting TGs (-32.1%, n = 57) (all p ≤ 0.001). Reductions from baseline over time in these parameters were also significant at month 36 (all p < 0.001, n = 14). At month 4, 34.8% of patients had a ≥1% reduction in HbA1c and 62.5% had a ≥30% reduction in fasting TGs; at month 12, 80% of patients had a ≥1% decrease in HbA1c or ≥30% decrease in TGs, and 66% had a decrease of ≥2% in HbA1c or ≥40% decrease in TGs. Of those on medications, 41%, 22%, and 24% discontinued insulin, oral antidiabetic medications, or lipid-lowering medications, respectively. Mean decrease in liver volume at month 12 was 33.8% (p < 0.001, n = 12). Most TEAEs were of mild/moderate severity. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with generalized lipodystrophy, long-term treatment with metreleptin was well tolerated and resulted in sustained improvements in hypertriglyceridemia, glycemic control, and liver volume.