Numerical Modelling of the Dynamic Voltage in HTS Materials under the Action of DC Transport Currents and Different Oscillating Magnetic Fields.
The dynamic voltage is a unique phenomenon of superconducting materials. It arises when the superconductor is carrying a DC transport current and spontaneously in subject to an AC magnetic field. This study excavates the aspects that previous studies have not comprehensively investigated: the dynamic voltage in a DC-carrying superconducting tape exposed to different oscillating AC magnetic fields. First, the fundamental physics of dynamic voltage/flux of superconductors is reviewed and further analysed in detail. We used the superconducting modelling method using the H-formulation merged into the finite-element method (FEM) software, to re-produce the typical dynamic voltage behaviour of a superconducting tape. The modelling was verified by both the analytical and experimental results, in order to precisely prove the reliability of the modelling. Afterwards, the modelling was performed for a DC-carrying superconducting tape under four different oscillating magnetic fields (sine, triangle, sawtooth and square), and their corresponding dynamic voltages and energy losses were analysed and compared. Results show the sinusoidal magnetic field can lead to the optimal combination of reasonable dynamic voltage but relatively lower loss, which is suitable for those superconducting applications requiring dynamic voltage as the energy source, e.g., flux pumps. This article presents novel investigation and analysis of the dynamic voltage in superconducting materials, and both the methodology and results can provide useful information for the future design/analysis of superconducting applications with DC transport currents and AC magnetic fields.