Ectocytosis renders TCR signaling self-limiting at the immune synapse
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) kill virus-infected and cancer cells via T cell receptor (TCR) recognition. How CTLs terminate signaling and disengage to allow serial killing has remained a mystery. TCR activation triggers membrane specialization within the immune synapse including the production of diacylglycerol (DAG), a lipid that can induce negative membrane curvature. We found that activated TCRs were shed into DAG-enriched ectosomes at the immune synapse rather than internalized via endocytosis, suggesting that DAG may contribute to the outward budding required for ectocytosis. Budding ectosomes were endocytosed directly by target cells, thereby terminating TCR signaling and simultaneously disengaging the CTL from the target cell to allow serial killing. Thus, ectocytosis renders TCR signaling self-limiting.
Wellcome Trust (217100/Z/19/Z)