Crackling noise and avalanches in minerals
Abstract: The non-smooth, jerky movements of microstructures under external forcing in minerals are explained by avalanche theory in this review. External stress or internal deformations by impurities and electric fields modify microstructures by typical pattern formations. Very common are the collapse of holes, the movement of twin boundaries and the crushing of biominerals. These three cases are used to demonstrate that they follow very similar time dependences, as predicted by avalanche theories. The experimental observation method described in this review is the acoustic emission spectroscopy (AE) although other methods are referenced. The overarching properties in these studies is that the probability to observe an avalanche jerk J is a power law distributed P(J) ~ J−ε where ε is the energy exponent (in simple mean field theory: ε = 1.33 or ε = 1.66). This power law implies that the dynamic pattern formation covers a large range (several decades) of energies, lengths and times. Other scaling properties are briefly discussed. The generated patterns have high fractal dimensions and display great complexity.
Natural Science Foundation of China (51908088)
H2020 Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions (861153)