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New therapeutic approaches for Krabbe disease: The potential of pharmacological chaperones.

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Spratley, Samantha J 


Missense mutations in the lysosomal hydrolase β-galactocerebrosidase (GALC) account for at least 40% of known cases of Krabbe disease (KD). Most of these missense mutations are predicted to disrupt the fold of the enzyme, preventing GALC in sufficient amounts from reaching its site of action in the lysosome. The predominant central nervous system (CNS) pathology and the absence of accumulated primary substrate within the lysosome mean that strategies used to treat other lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are insufficient in KD, highlighting the still unmet clinical requirement for successful KD therapeutics. Pharmacological chaperone therapy (PCT) is one strategy being explored to overcome defects in GALC caused by missense mutations. In recent studies, several small-molecule inhibitors have been identified as promising chaperone candidates for GALC. This Review discusses new insights gained from these studies and highlights the importance of characterizing both the chaperone interaction and the underlying mutation to define properly a responsive population and to improve the translation of existing lead molecules into successful KD therapeutics. We also highlight the importance of using multiple complementary methods to monitor PCT effectiveness. Finally, we explore the exciting potential of using combination therapy to ameliorate disease through the use of PCT with existing therapies or with more generalized therapeutics, such as proteasomal inhibition, that have been shown to have synergistic effects in other LSDs. This, alongside advances in CNS delivery of recombinant enzyme and targeted rational drug design, provides a promising outlook for the development of KD therapeutics. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Neuroscience Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.



GALC, Krabbe disease, galactocerebroside, lysosomal storage disorder, pharmacological chaperone therapy, β-galactocerebrosidase, Animals, Enzyme Replacement Therapy, Galactosylceramidase, Humans, Leukodystrophy, Globoid Cell, Molecular Chaperones

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J Neurosci Res

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Royal Society (1562)
The Royal Society (uf100371)
Wellcome Trust (100140/Z/12/Z)
S.J.S. is funded by an MRC PhD studentship and J.E.D. is supported by a Royal Society University Research Fellowship (UF100371). The Cambridge Institute for Medical Research is supported by Wellcome Trust Strategic Award 100140.