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Evaluation of haem dipstick pad, urine protein, urinepHand urine protein:creatinine ratio results as a marker of bacteriuria in dogs and cats with inactive urine sediment

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Williams, TL 


jats:secjats:titleObjectives</jats:title>jats:pEvaluation of haem dipstick pad, urine protein, urine pH and urine protein:creatinine ratio results as a marker of bacteriuria in dogs and cats with inactive urine sediment.</jats:p></jats:sec>jats:secjats:titleMaterials and Methods</jats:title>jats:pCats and dogs with contemporaneous urine dipstick, microscopic sediment analysis and microbiological culture and sensitivity results over a four‐year period (2016 to 2020) were retrospectively identified. Dogs and cats with active urine sediments (at least five erythrocytes and/or five leukocytes per high‐power field) and/or spermaturia were excluded. Association between urine pH, haem dipstick result, protein dipstick result and urine protein:creatinine ratio with bacteriuria were evaluated using binary logistic regression analysis. Likelihood ratios for bacteriuria were calculated at different diagnostic thresholds.</jats:p></jats:sec>jats:secjats:titleResults</jats:title>jats:pA total of 668 and 169 dog and cat urine samples were included. Of these, 166 dogs (25%) had a positive urine culture, whilst only 29 cats (17%) had a positive urine culture. In dogs and cats, any positive haem dipstick result was significantly associated with bacteriuria, although only a ≥4+ haem positive result in dogs was associated with a small increase in the likelihood of a positive urine culture, and positive likelihood ratios did not support the use of haem dipstick results as a screening test for bacteriuria in cats. pH, urine protein:creatinine ratio and protein dipstick results were not associated with bacteriuria.</jats:p></jats:sec>jats:secjats:titleClinical Significance</jats:title>jats:pOur findings provide proof of concept that haem dipstick pad results in dogs with inactive sediment and without spermaturia might be useful as a screening test for bacteriuria, although further studies are required to confirm these findings.</jats:p></jats:sec>



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Journal of Small Animal Practice

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