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Cystic Fibrosis-Related Gut Dysbiosis: A Systematic Review.

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White, H 
de Goffau, MC 
Floto, RA 
Parkhill, J 


BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is associated with gut dysbiosis, local and systemic inflammation, and impaired immune function. Gut microbiota dysbiosis results from changes in the complex gut milieu in response to CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction, pancreatic malabsorption, diet, medications, and environmental influences. In several diseases, alteration of the gut microbiota influences local and systemic inflammation and disease outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of the gut microbiota in CF and explored factors influencing dysbiosis. METHODS: An electronic search of three databases was conducted in January 2019, and re-run in June 2021. Human, animal, and in vitro studies were included. The primary outcome was differences in the gut microbiota between people with CF (pwCF) and healthy controls. Secondary outcomes included the relationship between the gut microbiota and other factors, including diet, medication, inflammation, and pulmonary function in pwCF. RESULTS: Thirty-eight studies were identified. The literature confirmed the presence of CF-related gut dysbiosis, characterized by reduced diversity and several taxonomic changes. There was a relative increase of bacteria associated with a pro-inflammatory response coupled with a reduction of those considered anti-inflammatory. However, studies linking gut dysbiosis to systemic and lung inflammation were limited. Causes of gut dysbiosis were multifactorial, and findings were variable. Data on the impact of CFTR modulators on the gut microbiota were limited. CONCLUSIONS: CF-related gut dysbiosis is evident in pwCF. Whether this influences local and systemic disease and is amenable to interventions with diet and drugs, such as CFTR modulators, requires further investigation.



CFTR, Cystic fibrosis, Diet, Dysbiosis, Gut microbiota, Inflammation, Animals, Humans, Cystic Fibrosis, Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator, Dysbiosis, Bacteria, Inflammation

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Dig Dis Sci

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Springer Science and Business Media LLC