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Associations of early adulthood life transitions with changes in fast food intake: a latent trajectory analysis.

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Winpenny, Eleanor M  ORCID logo
Winkler, Megan R 
Stochl, Jan 
van Sluijs, Esther MF 
Larson, Nicole 


BACKGROUND: Early adulthood is a period of rapid personal development when individuals experience major life transitions (e.g. leaving the parental home, leaving education, beginning employment, cohabitation and parenthood). Changes in social and physical environments associated with these transitions may influence development of health-related behaviours. Consumption of fast food is one behaviour associated with poor diet and long-term health outcomes. In this study we assess how frequency of fast food consumption changes across early adulthood, and how major life transitions are associated with changes in fast food intake. METHODS: Data were collected across four waves of the Project EAT study, from mean age 14.9 (SD = 1.6) to mean age 31.1 (SD = 1.6) years. Participants reporting data at two or more waves were included (n = 2902). Participants reported past week frequency of eating food from a fast food restaurant and responded to questions on living arrangements, education and employment participation, and having children. To assess changes in fast food we developed a latent growth model incorporating an underlying trajectory of fast food intake, five life transitions, and time-invariant covariates. RESULTS: Mean fast food intake followed an underlying quadratic trajectory, increasing through adolescence to a maximum of 1.88 (SE 0.94) times/week and then decreasing again through early adulthood to 0.76 (SE 2.06) times/week at wave 4. Beginning full-time employment and becoming a parent both contributed to increases in fast food intake, each resulting in an average increase in weekly fast food intake of 0.16 (p < 0.01) times/week. Analysis of changes between pairs of waves revealed stronger associations for these two transitions between waves 1-2 (mean age 14.9-19.4 years) than seen in later waves. Leaving the parental home and beginning cohabitation were associated with decreases in fast food intake of - 0.17 (p = 0.004) and - 0.16 (p = 0.007) times/week respectively, while leaving full-time education was not associated with any change. CONCLUSIONS: The transitions of beginning full-time employment and becoming a parent were associated with increases in fast food intake. Public health policy or interventions designed to reduce fast food intake in young adults may benefit from particular focus on populations experiencing these transitions, to ameliorate their impact.



Diet, Education, Employment, Fast food, Life transition, Longitudinal, Parenthood, Partner, Young adult, Adolescent, Adult, Diet, Fast Foods, Feeding Behavior, Health Behavior, Humans, Young Adult

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Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act

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Springer Science and Business Media LLC


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Medical Research Council (MC_UU_12015/7)
Medical Research Council (MR/K023187/1)
Wellcome Trust (087636/Z/08/Z)
MRC (MC_UU_00006/5)
MRC (MR/T010576/1)
Economic and Social Research Council (ES/G007462/1)
EvS and EW are supported by the Medical Research Council (MC_UU_12015/7, MR/T010576/1). No funders had any involvement in the design of the study, the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data, or in writing the manuscript.