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Molecular Approaches to Understanding Transmission and Source Attribution in Nontyphoidal Salmonella and Their Application in Africa.

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Mather, Alison E 
Vaughan, Timothy G 
French, Nigel P 


Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a frequent cause of diarrhea around the world, yet in many African countries it is more commonly associated with invasive bacterial disease. Various source attribution models have been developed that utilize microbial subtyping data to assign cases of human NTS infection to different animal populations and foods of animal origin. Advances in molecular microbial subtyping approaches, in particular whole-genome sequencing, provide higher resolution data with which to investigate these sources. In this review, we provide updates on the source attribution models developed for Salmonella, and examine the application of whole-genome sequencing data combined with evolutionary modeling to investigate the putative sources and transmission pathways of NTS, with a focus on the epidemiology of NTS in Africa. This is essential information to decide where, what, and how control strategies might be applied most effectively.



Africa, bacteremia, nontyphoidal Salmonella, source attribution, whole-genome sequencing, Africa, Animals, Bacteremia, Evolution, Molecular, Genome, Bacterial, Humans, Models, Biological, Salmonella Infections, Salmonella enterica, Sequence Analysis, DNA

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Clin Infect Dis

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Oxford University Press (OUP)
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/M014088/1)
This work was supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council [grant BB/M014088/1 to A.E.M.], and the Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution (support to N.P.F.), and the University of Auckland (support to T.G.V.). This publication was made possible by a grant of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP1125993).