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The extravasation of contrast as a predictor of cerebral hemorrhagic contusion expansion, poor neurological outcome and mortality after traumatic brain injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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Baldon, Isabella Vargas 
Amorim, Andre Candeas 
Santana, Larissa Marques 
Kolias, Angelos 


Background: The active extravasation of contrast on CT angiography (CTA) in primary intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) is recognized as a predictive factor for ICH expansion, unfavorable outcomes and mortality. However, few studies have been conducted on the setting of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Purpose: To perform a literature systematic review and meta-analysis of the association of contrast extravasation on cerebral hemorrhagic contusion expansion, neurological outcomes and mortality. Data sources: The PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, Scielo, VHL and IBECS databases up to September 21, 2019, were searched for eligible studies. Study selection: A total of 505 individual titles and abstracts were identified and screened. A total of 36 were selected for full text analysis, out of which 4 fulfilled all inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data analysis: All 4 studies yielded point estimates suggestive of higher risk for hematoma expansion with contrast extravasation and the summary RR was 5.75 (95%CI 2.74–10.47, p<0.001). Contrast extravasation was also associated with worse neurological outcomes (RR 3.25, 95%CI 2.24–4.73, p<0.001) and higher mortality (RR 2.77, 95%CI 1.03–7.47, p = 0.04). Data synthesis: This study is a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis revealed the extravasation of contrast is a useful imaging sign to predict hematoma expansion, worse neurological outcomes and higher mortality. Limitations: Only four articles were selected. Conclusions: The extravasation of contrast in the setting of TBI is a useful imaging sign to predict hematoma expansion, worse neurological outcomes and higher mortality.



Research Article, Research and analysis methods, Biology and life sciences, Medicine and health sciences, Physical sciences

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Public Library of Science