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Radiative Forcing From the 2014–2022 Volcanic and Wildfire Injections

Published version

Published version
Peer-reviewed

Repository DOI


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Abstract

jats:titleAbstract</jats:title>jats:pVolcanic and wildfire events between 2014 and 2022 injected ∼3.2 Tg of sulfur dioxide and 0.8 Tg of smoke aerosols into the stratosphere. With injections at higher altitudes and lower latitudes, the simulated stratospheric lifetime of the 2014–2022 injections is about 50% longer than the volcanic 2005–2013 injections. The simulated global mean effective radiative forcing (ERF) of 2014–2022 is −0.18 W mjats:sup−2</jats:sup>, ∼40% of the ERF of the period of 1991–1999 with a large‐magnitude volcanic eruption (Pinatubo). Our climate model suggests that the stratospheric smoke aerosols generate ∼60% more negative ERF than volcanic sulfate per unit aerosol optical depth. Studies that fail to account for the different radiative properties of wildfire smoke relative to volcanic sulfate will likely underestimate the negative stratospheric forcings. Our analysis suggests that stratospheric injections offset 20% of the increase in global mean surface temperature between 2014–2022 and 1999–2002.</jats:p>

Description

Funder: National Science Foundation; doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000001


Funder: Office of Science; doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100006132


Funder: Biological and Environmental Research; doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100006206

Keywords

37 Earth Sciences, 3701 Atmospheric Sciences, 13 Climate Action

Journal Title

Geophysical Research Letters

Conference Name

Journal ISSN

0094-8276
1944-8007

Volume Title

50

Publisher

American Geophysical Union (AGU)
Sponsorship
National Natural Science Foundation of China (42121004, 42175089)
The Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific expedition and research program (2019QZKK0604)