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Radiative Forcing From the 2014–2022 Volcanic and Wildfire Injections

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jats:titleAbstract</jats:title>jats:pVolcanic and wildfire events between 2014 and 2022 injected ∼3.2 Tg of sulfur dioxide and 0.8 Tg of smoke aerosols into the stratosphere. With injections at higher altitudes and lower latitudes, the simulated stratospheric lifetime of the 2014–2022 injections is about 50% longer than the volcanic 2005–2013 injections. The simulated global mean effective radiative forcing (ERF) of 2014–2022 is −0.18 W mjats:sup−2</jats:sup>, ∼40% of the ERF of the period of 1991–1999 with a large‐magnitude volcanic eruption (Pinatubo). Our climate model suggests that the stratospheric smoke aerosols generate ∼60% more negative ERF than volcanic sulfate per unit aerosol optical depth. Studies that fail to account for the different radiative properties of wildfire smoke relative to volcanic sulfate will likely underestimate the negative stratospheric forcings. Our analysis suggests that stratospheric injections offset 20% of the increase in global mean surface temperature between 2014–2022 and 1999–2002.</jats:p>


Funder: National Science Foundation; doi:

Funder: Office of Science; doi:

Funder: Biological and Environmental Research; doi:


37 Earth Sciences, 3701 Atmospheric Sciences, 13 Climate Action

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Geophysical Research Letters

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American Geophysical Union (AGU)
National Natural Science Foundation of China (42121004, 42175089)
The Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific expedition and research program (2019QZKK0604)