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LRRC15 mediates an accessory interaction with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.

Published version
Peer-reviewed

Type

Article

Change log

Authors

Teixeira-Silva, Ana  ORCID logo  https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9011-9501
Gabaev, Ildar 
Gerber, Pehuén Pereyra 

Abstract

The interactions between Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and human host factors enable the virus to propagate infections that lead to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The spike protein is the largest structural component of the virus and mediates interactions essential for infection, including with the primary angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. We performed two independent cell-based systematic screens to determine whether there are additional proteins by which the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 can interact with human cells. We discovered that in addition to ACE2, expression of LRRC15 also causes spike protein binding. This interaction is distinct from other known spike attachment mechanisms such as heparan sulfates or lectin receptors. Measurements of orthologous coronavirus spike proteins implied the interaction was functionally restricted to SARS-CoV-2 by accessibility. We localized the interaction to the C-terminus of the S1 domain and showed that LRRC15 shares recognition of the ACE2 receptor binding domain. From analyzing proteomics and single-cell transcriptomics, we identify LRRC15 expression as being common in human lung vasculature cells and fibroblasts. Levels of LRRC15 were greatly elevated by inflammatory signals in the lungs of COVID-19 patients. Although infection assays demonstrated that LRRC15 alone is not sufficient to permit viral entry, we present evidence that it can modulate infection of human cells. This unexpected interaction merits further investigation to determine how SARS-CoV-2 exploits host LRRC15 and whether it could account for any of the distinctive features of COVID-19.

Description

Funder: NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre


Funder: Addenbrooke’s Charitable Trust, Cambridge University Hospitals

Keywords

Humans, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2, Protein Binding, Membrane Proteins

Journal Title

PLoS Biol

Conference Name

Journal ISSN

1544-9173
1545-7885

Volume Title

21

Publisher

Public Library of Science (PLoS)
Sponsorship
Wellcome Trust (204845/Z/16/Z)
Wellcome Trust (210688/Z/18/Z)
Wellcome Trust (215477/Z/19/Z)
MRC (MR/V011561/1)
MRC (via University of Birmingham) (MR/V028448/1)
MRC (MR/T032413/1)