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Models of Cochlea Used in Cochlear Implant Research: A Review.

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Roberts, Iwan 
Sevgili, Ilkem 
Swords, Chloe 
Bance, Manohar 


As the first clinically translated machine-neural interface, cochlear implants (CI) have demonstrated much success in providing hearing to those with severe to profound hearing loss. Despite their clinical effectiveness, key drawbacks such as hearing damage, partly from insertion forces that arise during implantation, and current spread, which limits focussing ability, prevent wider CI eligibility. In this review, we provide an overview of the anatomical and physical properties of the cochlea as a resource to aid the development of accurate models to improve future CI treatments. We highlight the advancements in the development of various physical, animal, tissue engineering, and computational models of the cochlea and the need for such models, challenges in their use, and a perspective on their future directions.


Funder: Evelyn Trust; doi:

Funder: Royal College of Surgeons and the Anatomical Society

Funder: W.D. Armstrong Fund (UK)

Funder: Turkish Ministry of National Education (TR)


Additive manufacturing, Cochlea anatomy, Cochlea models, Cochlear implants, Animals, Cochlear Implants, Cochlear Implantation, Cochlea, Hearing, Treatment Outcome

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Ann Biomed Eng

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Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Wellcome Trust (RG93172)
Royal National Institute for Deaf People (G100138)
Rosetrees Trust (EF2020/100099, Flexigrant F112)