Robot-assisted kidney transplantation: an update.
Renal transplantation has become the gold-standard treatment for the majority of patients with established renal failure. Recent decades have seen significant progress in immunosuppressive therapies and advances in post-transplant management of recipients, resulting in improved graft and patient outcomes. However, the open technique of allograft implantation has stood the test of time, remaining largely unchanged. In a world where major advances in surgery have been facilitated by innovations in the fields of biotechnology and medical instrumentation, minimally invasive options have been introduced for the recipient undergoing kidney transplantation. In this review we present the evolution of minimally invasive kidney transplantation, with a specific focus on robot-assisted kidney transplant and the benefits it offers to specific patient groups. We also discuss the ethical concerns that must be addressed by transplant teams considering developing or referring to robotic programs.