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Porcine sapovirus replication is restricted by the type I interferon response in cell culture.

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Sorgeloos, Frédéric 
Hiraide, Rintaro 


Porcine sapovirus (PSaV) of the family Caliciviridae, is the only member of the genus Sapovirus with cell culture and reverse genetics systems. When combined with the piglet model, these approaches provide a system to understand the molecular basis of sapovirus pathogenesis. The replication of PSaV in cell culture is, however, restricted, displaying an absolute requirement for bile acids and producing lower levels of infectious virus than other caliciviruses. The effect of bile acids has previously been linked to a reduction in the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1)-mediated signalling pathway. In the current study, we observed that even in the presence of bile acids, PSaV replication in cell culture was restricted by soluble factors produced from infected cells. This effect was at least partially due to secreted IFN because treatment of cells with recombinant porcine IFN-β resulted in significantly reduced viral replication. Moreover, IFN-mediated signalling pathways (IFN, STAT1 and the 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase) were activated during PSaV infection. Characterization of PSaV growth in cell lines deficient in their ability to induce or respond to IFN showed a 100-150-fold increase in infectious virus production, indicating that the primary role of bile acids was not the inactivation of the innate immune response. Furthermore, the use of IFN-deficient cell lines enabled more efficient recovery of PSaV from cDNA constructs. Overall, the highly efficient cell culture and reverse genetics system established here for PSaV highlighted the key role of the innate immune response in the restriction of PSaV infection and should greatly facilitate further molecular studies on sapovirus host-cell interactions.



Animals, Caliciviridae Infections, Cell Line, DNA Replication, DNA, Complementary, Immunity, Innate, Interferon-beta, RNA, Viral, Sapovirus, Swine, Virus Replication

Journal Title

J Gen Virol

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Volume Title

Journal of General Virology


Microbiology Society
This research was supported by funding from the Wellcome Trust (Ref: WT097997MA), Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (Ref: BB/I012303/1) and the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (NRF-2014R1A2A2A01004292). IG is a Wellcome senior fellow.