Repository logo

Low-cost electrodes for stable perovskite solar cells

Published version

Change log


Bastos J 
Manghooli, S 
Manoj, J 
Tait, J 
Qiu, W 


Cost-effective production of perovskite solar cells on an industrial scale requires the utilization of exclusively inexpensive materials. However, to date, highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells rely on expensive gold electrodes since other metal electrodes are known to cause degradation of the devices. Finding a low-cost electrode that can replace gold and ensure both efficiency and long-term stability is essential for the success of the perovskite-based solar cell technology. In this work, we systematically compare three types of electrode materials: multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), alternative metals (silver, aluminum, and copper), and transparent oxides [indium tin oxide (ITO)] in terms of efficiency, stability, and cost. We show that multi-walled carbon nanotubes are the only electrode that is both more cost-effective and stable than gold. Devices with multi-walled carbon nanotube electrodes present remarkable shelf-life stability, with no decrease in the efficiency even after 180 h of storage in 77% relative humidity (RH). Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential of devices with multi-walled carbon nanotube electrodes to achieve high efficiencies. These developments are an important step forward to mass produce perovskite photovoltaics in a commercially viable way.



40 Engineering, 4016 Materials Engineering, 4018 Nanotechnology, Bioengineering, 7 Affordable and Clean Energy

Journal Title

Applied Physics Letters

Conference Name

Journal ISSN


Volume Title



AIP Publishing
European Research Council (337739)
The authors would also like to gratefully acknowledge Solliance for the financial support, the Initiating and Networking funding of the Helmholtz Association (HYIG of U. Paetzold), and the European Research Council (FP7 ERC StG HIENA - 337739 of M. de Volder). This research has received (partial) funding from the Flemish Government–Department of Economics, Science and Innovation.