Repository logo

Generating Operative Workflows for Vestibular Schwannoma Resection: A Two-Stage Delphi's Consensus in Collaboration with the British Skull Base Society. Part 2: The Translabyrinthine Approach.

Published version

Repository DOI



Change log


Horsfall, Hugo Layard  ORCID logo
Khan, Danyal Z 
Collins, Justin 
Cooke, Stephen 
Freeman, Simon R 


Objective  An operative workflow systematically compartmentalizes operations into hierarchal components of phases, steps, instrument, technique errors, and event errors. Operative workflow provides a foundation for education, training, and understanding of surgical variation. In this Part 2, we present a codified operative workflow for the translabyrinthine approach to vestibular schwannoma resection. Methods  A mixed-method consensus process of literature review, small-group Delphi's consensus, followed by a national Delphi's consensus was performed in collaboration with British Skull Base Society (BSBS). Each Delphi's round was repeated until data saturation and over 90% consensus was reached. Results  Seventeen consultant skull base surgeons (nine neurosurgeons and eight ENT [ear, nose, and throat]) with median of 13.9 years of experience (interquartile range: 18.1 years) of independent practice participated. There was a 100% response rate across both the Delphi rounds. The translabyrinthine approach had the following five phases and 57 unique steps: Phase 1, approach and exposure; Phase 2, mastoidectomy; Phase 3, internal auditory canal and dural opening; Phase 4, tumor debulking and excision; and Phase 5, closure. Conclusion  We present Part 2 of a national, multicenter, consensus-derived, codified operative workflow for the translabyrinthine approach to vestibular schwannomas. The five phases contain the operative, steps, instruments, technique errors, and event errors. The codified translabyrinthine approach presented in this manuscript can serve as foundational research for future work, such as the application of artificial intelligence to vestibular schwannoma resection and comparative surgical research.



Delphi, consensus, retrosigmoid, skull base surgery, translabyrinthine, vestibular schwannoma

Journal Title

J Neurol Surg B Skull Base

Conference Name

Journal ISSN


Volume Title


Georg Thieme Verlag KG