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Mannose-6-phosphate regulates destruction of lipid-linked oligosaccharides.

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Gao, Ningguo 
Shang, Jie 
Huynh, Dang 
Manthati, Vijaya L 
Arias, Carolina 


Mannose-6-phosphate (M6P) is an essential precursor for mannosyl glycoconjugates, including lipid-linked oligosaccharides (LLO; glucose(3)mannose(9)GlcNAc(2)-P-P-dolichol) used for protein N-glycosylation. In permeabilized mammalian cells, M6P also causes specific LLO cleavage. However, the context and purpose of this paradoxical reaction are unknown. In this study, we used intact mouse embryonic fibroblasts to show that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress elevates M6P concentrations, leading to cleavage of the LLO pyrophosphate linkage with recovery of its lipid and lumenal glycan components. We demonstrate that this M6P originates from glycogen, with glycogenolysis activated by the kinase domain of the stress sensor IRE1-α. The apparent futility of M6P causing destruction of its LLO product was resolved by experiments with another stress sensor, PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), which attenuates translation. PERK's reduction of N-glycoprotein synthesis (which consumes LLOs) stabilized steady-state LLO levels despite continuous LLO destruction. However, infection with herpes simplex virus 1, an N-glycoprotein-bearing pathogen that impairs PERK signaling, not only caused LLO destruction but depleted LLO levels as well. In conclusion, the common metabolite M6P is also part of a novel mammalian stress-signaling pathway, responding to viral stress by depleting host LLOs required for N-glycosylation of virus-associated polypeptides. Apparently conserved throughout evolution, LLO destruction may be a response to a variety of environmental stresses.



Amides, Aminoacridines, Animals, CHO Cells, Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation, Cricetinae, Dolichol Phosphates, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Fibroblasts, Fluorescent Dyes, Glycogen, Glycogen Phosphorylase, Herpes Simplex, Herpesvirus 1, Human, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Immunity, Cellular, Indoles, Lipopolysaccharides, Mannosephosphates, Mice, Mice, Knockout, Phosphotransferases (Phosphomutases), Polysaccharides, Unfolded Protein Response, eIF-2 Kinase

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Molecular Biology of the Cell

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American Society for Cell Biology
Medical Research Council (G0600717)
Wellcome Trust (084812/Z/08/Z)
Medical Research Council (G0600717/1)
This work is supported by NIH grants DK-042394, HL-052173, and HL-057346 to R.J.K.; by NIH grants AI-073898 and GM-056927 to I.M.; by NIH grant R-37-DK047119 and a Principal Research Fellowship from the Wellcome Trust to D.R.; by NIH grant GM-031278 and support from the Robert Welch Foundation to J.R.F.; and by NIH grant GM-038545 and Robert Welch Foundation grant I-1168 to M.A.L.