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Person-centred study on higher-order interactions between students' motivational beliefs and metacognitive self-regulation: Links with school language achievement.

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Variable-centred studies assume that the links between motivation and metacognition with academic achievement are uniform across all students. However, this assumption may not hold and multiple interactions between motivational beliefs and metacognitive self-regulation may occur. To this end, the present study sought to explore these higher-order interactions and their links with school language achievement in a low-performance context. A large sample (N = 1046, 53.14% girls) of Greek secondary school students (M = 13.97, SD = .80) was drawn. Latent profile analyses were deployed to mimic higher-order interactions. Unexpectedly, the results indicated only three distinct well-defined profiles of students' motivated metacognitive self-regulation, namely exceptional motivation and metacognitive self-regulation (23.3%), adequate motivation and metacognitive self-regulation (48.2%), and minimal motivation and metacognitive self-regulation (28.5%). Incompatible profiles of motivation and metacognitive self-regulation did not emerge, contrary to previous findings suggesting negative higher-order interactions. The BCH method revealed large mean differences in school language achievement between the profiles, adjusting for covariates. Latent multinomial logistic regression indicated that gender and age predicted greater odds of membership to the minimal motivation and metacognitive self-regulation profile. Socio-economic status and spoken language at home predicted less chances of membership to the minimal profile only. Educational interventions are needed to target both motivational beliefs and metacognition to prevent underachievement.


Acknowledgements: The authors thank the students and schools that participated in the study.

Funder: A.G. Leventis Foundation; funder-id:


Female, Humans, Male, Motivation, Academic Success, Metacognition, Students, Language, Self-Control

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PLoS One

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Public Library of Science (PLoS)
Alexander S. Onassis Public Benefit Foundation (F ZR024/1-2021/2022)