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Is behavioural flexibility evidence of cognitive complexity? How evolution can inform comparative cognition

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Mikhalevich, I 
Powell, R 


Behavioural flexibility is often treated as the gold standard of evidence for more sophisticated or complex forms of animal cognition, such as planning, metacognition and mindreading. However, the evidential link between behavioural flexibility and complex cognition has not been explicitly or systematically defended. Such a defence is particularly pressing because observed flexible behaviours can frequently be explained by putatively simpler cognitive mechanisms. This leaves complex cognition hypotheses open to ‘deflationary’ challenges that are accorded greater evidential weight precisely because they offer putatively simpler explanations of equal explanatory power. This paper challenges the blanket preference for simpler explanations, and shows that once this preference is dispensed with, and the full spectrum of evidence—including evolutionary, ecological and phylogenetic data—is accorded its proper weight, an argument in support of the prevailing assumption that behavioural flexibility can serve as evidence for complex cognitive mechanisms may begin to take shape. An adaptive model of cognitive-behavioural evolution is proposed, according to which the existence of convergent trait–environment clusters in phylogenetically disparate lineages may serve as evidence for the same trait–environment clusters in other lineages. This, in turn, could permit inferences of cognitive complexity in cases of experimental underdetermination, thereby placing the common view that behavioural flexibility can serve as evidence for complex cognition on firmer grounds.



behavioural flexibility, cognition, convergence, Morgan's canon, simplicity

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The Royal Society
R.P. is grateful to Templeton Foundation grant no. 43160, and C.L. thanks the SAGE Center for the Study of the Mind at the University of California Santa Barbara, the Leverhulme Trust and the Isaac Newton Trust for a Leverhulme Early Career Research Fellowship, for support of this research.