Descriptive epidemiology of changes in objectively measured sedentary behaviour and physical activity: six-year follow-up of the EPIC-Norfolk cohort.

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White, Tom 
Brage, Søren 
van Sluijs, Esther MF 
Westgate, Kate 

BACKGROUND: Sedentary time increases and total physical activity decreases with age. The magnitude and correlates of changes in sedentary time, light-intensity physical activity (LPA), moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA), and overall physical activity remain unclear. We quantified these changes and identified their individual and sociodemographic correlates. METHODS: We used data from 1259 adults (67.8 ± 6.9 years; 41.9% women) who participated in the EPIC-Norfolk Study. Activity was assessed at baseline (2004-2011) and follow-up (2012-2016) for 7 days using accelerometers. Potential correlates of change were specified a priori. We used unadjusted and adjusted sex-stratified linear regressions to identify correlates of change. RESULTS: Only 3.7% of adults met the current MVPA recommendations. Sedentary time increased by 3.0 min/day/year (SD = 12.3). LPA, MVPA, and overall PA decreased by 1.7 min/day/year (SD = 5.4), 3.0 min/day/year (SD = 6.0), and 8.8 cpm/year (SD = 18.8), respectively. Correlates of greater rates of increase in sedentary time included older age and higher BMI in men, and older age, higher BMI, smoking, and urban dwelling in women. Correlates of greater rates of decrease in physical activity included older age, higher BMI, living alone, depression, car use, and/or fair/poor self-rated health in men, and older age, higher BMI, depression, smoking, and/or urban dwelling in women (e.g. depressed women had a 1.0 min/day/year greater rate of decline in MVPA than non-depressed women, 95% CI -1.8, - 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: Most (> 95%) adults are insufficiently active. Sedentary time increases and LPA, MVPA and overall physical activity decreases over time, with more pronounced rates of change observed in specific sub-groups (e.g. among older and depressed adults). To promote active living, the correlates of these changes should be considered in future interventions.

Accelerometry, Physical activity, Sedentary time, Accelerometry, Age Factors, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Cohort Studies, Exercise, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Goals, Health Behavior, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Sedentary Behavior
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Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
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Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Medical Research Council (MC_UU_12015/4)
Medical Research Council (MC_UU_12015/1)
Medical Research Council (MC_UU_12015/7)
Medical Research Council (MC_UU_12015/3)
Wellcome Trust (087636/Z/08/Z)
Economic and Social Research Council (ES/G007462/1)
Medical Research Council (MR/K023187/1)
Medical Research Council (MR/K025147/1)
Department of Health (via National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)) (NF-SI-0515-10119)
Medical Research Council (G0501294)
Department of Health (via National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)) (NF-SI-0617-10149)
Department of Health (via National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)) (NF-SI-0512-10135)
Medical Research Council (G0401527)
Cancer Research Uk (None)
Medical Research Council (MC_U106179473)
This work was supported by the Lifelong Health and Wellbeing Cross-Council Programme (MR/K025147/1 to SJG, NJW and AJ), the Medical Research Council (MRC) (MC_UU_12015/4 to SJG, MC_UU_12015/3 to SB, MC_UU_12015/7 to EvS, MC_UU_12015/1 to NJW), the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (FRN 146766; Fellowship to SH), and MedImmune (Studentship to TW). The EPIC-Norfolk study is supported by programme grants from the Medical Research Council (G0401527) and Cancer Research UK (C864/A8257) and Age UK (Grant reference: 262). The work was supported by the Centre for Diet and Activity Research (CEDAR), a UKCRC Public Health Research Centre of Excellence which is funded by the British Heart Foundation, Cancer Research UK, Economic and Social Research Council, Medical Research Council, the National Institute for Health Research, and the Wellcome Trust (087636/Z/08/Z; ES/G007462/1; MR/K023187/1). The University of Cambridge has received salary support in respect of SJG from the NHS in the East of England through the Clinical Academic Reserve. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NHS or the Department of Health.