A Review of User Interface Design for Interactive Machine Learning

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Dudley, JJ 
Kristensson, Per Ola  ORCID logo  https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7139-871X

Interactive Machine Learning (IML) seeks to complement human perception and intelligence by tightly integrating these strengths with the computational power and speed of computers. The interactive process is designed to involve input from the user but does not require the background knowledge or experience that might be necessary to work with more traditional machine learning techniques. Under the IML process, non-experts can apply their domain knowledge and insight over otherwise unwieldy datasets to find patterns of interest or develop complex data driven applications. This process is co-adaptive in nature and relies on careful management of the interaction between human and machine. User interface design is fundamental to the success of this approach, yet there is a lack of consolidated principles on how such an interface should be implemented. This article presents a detailed review and characterisation of Interactive Machine Learning from an interactive systems perspective. We propose and describe a structural and behavioural model of a generalised IML system and identify solution principles for building effective interfaces for IML. Where possible, these emergent solution principles are contextualised by reference to the broader human-computer interaction literature. Finally, we identify strands of user interface research key to unlocking more efficient and productive non-expert interactive machine learning applications.

Interactive machine learning, interface design
Journal Title
ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
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Association for Computing Machinery
EPSRC (1198)
Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EP/R004471/1)
Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EP/N014278/1)
Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EP/N010558/1)