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Spray-lithography of hybrid graphene-perovskite paper-based photodetectors for sustainable electronics.

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Malik, Sunaan 
Zhao, Yining 
He, Yutong 
Zhao, Xinyu 
Li, Hongyu 


Paper is an ideal substrate for the development of flexible and environmentally sustainable ubiquitous electronic systems. When combined with nanomaterial-based devices, it can be harnessed for various Internet-of-Things applications, ranging from wearable electronics to smart packaging. However, paper remains a challenging substrate for electronics due to its rough and porous nature. In addition, the absence of established fabrication methods is impeding its utilization in wearable applications. Unlike other paper-based electronics with added layers, in this study, we present a scalable spray-lithography on a commercial paper substrate. We present a non-vacuum spray-lithography of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) single-layer graphene (SLG), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and perovskite quantum dots (QDs) on a paper substrate. This approach combines the advantages of two large-area techniques: CVD and spray-coating. The first technique allows for the growth of SLG, while the second enables the spray coating of a mask to pattern CVD SLG, electrodes (CNTs), and photoactive (QDs) layers. We harnessed the advantages of perovskite QDs in photodetection, leveraging their strong absorption coefficients. Integrating them with the graphene enhanced the photoconductive gain mechanism, leading to high external responsivity. The presented device shows high external responsivity of ~520A/W at 405nm at <1V bias due to photoconductive gain mechanism. The prepared paper-based photodetectors (PDs) achieved an external responsivity of 520 A/W under 405 nm illumination at <1V operating voltage. To the best of our knowledge, our devices have the highest external responsivity amongst paper-based PDs. By fabricating arrays of PDs on a paper substrate in the air, this work highlights the potential of this scalable approach for enabling ubiquitous electronics on paper.



Paper, graphene, perovskite, quantum dots, spray coating

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IOP Publishing
Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EP/P027628/1)
European Commission Horizon 2020 (H2020) Future and Emerging Technologies (FET) (881603)
EPSRC (EP/W024284/1)