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Structural Origins of Voltage Hysteresis in the Na-Ion Cathode P2-Na0.67[Mg0.28Mn0.72]O2: A Combined Spectroscopic and Density Functional Theory Study.

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Peer-reviewed

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Article

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Abstract

P2-layered sodium-ion battery (NIB) cathodes are a promising class of Na-ion electrode materials with high Na+ mobility and relatively high capacities. In this work, we report the structural changes that take place in P2-Na0.67[Mg0.28Mn0.72]O2. Using ex situ X-ray diffraction, Mn K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure, and 23Na NMR spectroscopy, we identify the bulk phase changes along the first electrochemical charge-discharge cycle-including the formation of a high-voltage "Z phase", an intergrowth of the OP4 and O2 phases. Our ab initio transition state searches reveal that reversible Mg2+ migration in the Z phase is both kinetically and thermodynamically favorable at high voltages. We propose that Mg2+ migration is a significant contributor to the observed voltage hysteresis in Na0.67[Mg0.28Mn0.72]O2 and identify qualitative changes in the Na+ ion mobility.

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Journal Title

Chemistry of materials : a publication of the American Chemical Society

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Journal ISSN

0897-4756

Volume Title

33

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