Practical quantum tokens without quantum memories and experimental tests

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Lowndes, D 
Pitalúa-García, D  ORCID logo
Rarity, J 

Unforgeable quantum money tokens were the first invention of quantum information science, but remain technologically challenging as they require quantum memories and/or long distance quantum communication. More recently, virtual 'S-money' tokens were introduced. These are generated by quantum cryptography, do not require quantum memories or long distance quantum communication, and yet in principle guarantee many of the security advantages of quantum money. Here, we describe implementations of S-money schemes with off-the-shelf quantum key distribution technology, and analyse security in the presence of noise, losses, and experimental imperfection. Our schemes satisfy near instant validation without cross-checking. We show that, given standard assumptions in mistrustful quantum cryptographic implementations, unforgeability and user privacy could be guaranteed with attainable refinements of our off-the-shelf setup. We discuss the possibilities for unconditionally secure (assumption-free) implementations.


Funder: UK Quantum Communications Hub grants no. EP/M013472/1 and EP/T001011/1; Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics.

quant-ph, quant-ph
Journal Title
npj Quantum Information
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Springer Science and Business Media LLC
EPSRC (via University of York) (EP/M013472/1)
EPSRC (via University of York) (EP/T001011/1)