Chromosome Painting in Neotropical Long- and Short-Tailed Parrots (Aves, Psittaciformes): Phylogeny and Proposal for a Putative Ancestral Karyotype for Tribe Arini.
: Most Neotropical Psittacidae have a diploid number of 2n = 70, and a dichotomy in chromosome patterns. Long-tailed species have biarmed macrochromosomes, while short-tailed species have telo/acrocentric macrochromosomes. However, the use of chromosome painting has demonstrated that karyotype evolution in Psittacidae includes a high number of inter/intrachromosomal rearrangements. To determine the phylogeny of long- and short-tailed species, and to propose a putative ancestral karyotype for this group, we constructed homology maps of Pyrrhura frontalis (PFR) and Amazona aestiva (AAE), belonging to the long- and short-tailed groups, respectively. Chromosomes were analyzed by conventional staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization using whole chromosome paints of Gallus gallus and Leucopternis albicollis. Conventional staining showed a karyotype with 2n = 70 in both species, with biarmed macrochromosomes in PFR and telo/acrocentric chromosomes in AAE. Comparison of the results with the putative avian ancestral karyotype (PAK) showed fusions in PFR of PAK1p/PAK4q (PFR1) and PAK6/PAK7 (PFR6) with a paracentric inversion in PFR6. However, in AAE, there was only the fusion between PAK6/7 (AAE7) with a paracentric inversion. Our results indicate that PFR retained a more basal karyotype than long-tailed species previously studied, and AAE a more basal karyotype for Neotropical Psittacidae analyzed so far.