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Understanding the patterns and health impact of indoor air pollutant exposures in Bradford, UK: a study protocol.

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Hamilton, Jacqueline 
Wood, Chantelle 
Chatzidiakou, Lia 
Warburton, Thomas 


INTRODUCTION: Relative to outdoor air pollution, there is little evidence examining the composition and concentrations of indoor air pollution and its associated health impacts. The INGENIOUS project aims to provide the comprehensive understanding of indoor air pollution in UK homes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 'Real Home Assessment' is a cross-sectional, multimethod study within INGENIOUS. This study monitors indoor air pollutants over 2 weeks using low-cost sensors placed in three rooms in 300 Born in Bradford (BiB) households. Building audits are completed by researchers, and participants are asked to complete a home survey and a health and behaviour questionnaire, in addition to recording household activities and health symptoms on at least 1 weekday and 1 weekend day. A subsample of 150 households will receive more intensive measurements of volatile organic compound and particulate matter for 3 days. Qualitative interviews conducted with 30 participants will identify key barriers and enablers of effective ventilation practices. Outdoor air pollution is measured in 14 locations across Bradford to explore relationships between indoor and outdoor air quality. Data will be analysed to explore total concentrations of indoor air pollutants, how these vary with building characteristics, and whether they are related to health symptoms. Interviews will be analysed through content and thematic analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been obtained from the NHS Health Research Authority Yorkshire and the Humber (Bradford Leeds) Research Ethics Committee (22/YH/0288). We will disseminate findings using our websites, social media, publications and conferences. Data will be open access through the BiB, the Open Science Framework and the UK Data Service.


Peer reviewed: True

Acknowledgements: Born in Bradford is only possible because of the enthusiasm and commitment of the children and parents in BiB. We are grateful to all the participants, health professionals, schools and researchers who have made Born in Bradford happen. We would like to acknowledge Kane Armatage and Sally Jones from the City of Bradford Metropolitan District Council for their involvement in outdoor air quality monitoring.


EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES, Health Equity, Observational Study, PUBLIC HEALTH, QUALITATIVE RESEARCH, Surveys and Questionnaires, Humans, Air Pollutants, Cross-Sectional Studies, Environmental Monitoring, Air Pollution, Particulate Matter, Air Pollution, Indoor, United Kingdom

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BMJ Open

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Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, UK Government (Air Quality Grant)
Natural Environment Research Council (NE/W002256/1, PANORAMA Doctoral Training Program)
National Institute for Health and Care Research Applied Collaboration for Yorkshire and Humber (NHIR200166)