Secondary cell wall patterning-connecting the dots, pits and helices.


Type
Article
Change log
Authors
Xu, Huizhen 
Giannetti, Alessandro 
Sugiyama, Yuki 
Zheng, Wenna 
Schneider, René 
Abstract

All plant cells are encased in primary cell walls that determine plant morphology, but also protect the cells against the environment. Certain cells also produce a secondary wall that supports mechanically demanding processes, such as maintaining plant body stature and water transport inside plants. Both these walls are primarily composed of polysaccharides that are arranged in certain patterns to support cell functions. A key requisite for patterned cell walls is the arrangement of cortical microtubules that may direct the delivery of wall polymers and/or cell wall producing enzymes to certain plasma membrane locations. Microtubules also steer the synthesis of cellulose-the load-bearing structure in cell walls-at the plasma membrane. The organization and behaviour of the microtubule array are thus of fundamental importance to cell wall patterns. These aspects are controlled by the coordinated effort of small GTPases that probably coordinate a Turing's reaction-diffusion mechanism to drive microtubule patterns. Here, we give an overview on how wall patterns form in the water-transporting xylem vessels of plants. We discuss systems that have been used to dissect mechanisms that underpin the xylem wall patterns, emphasizing the VND6 and VND7 inducible systems, and outline challenges that lay ahead in this field.

Description

Funder: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft


Funder: University of Melbourne


Funder: Japan Society for the Promotion of Science


Funder: DFG

Keywords
Cellulose, Microtubules, xylem, Plant Cell Wall, Cell Wall Patterning, Cell Membrane, Cell Wall, Plants, Water, Xylem
Journal Title
Open Biol
Conference Name
Journal ISSN
2046-2441
2046-2441
Volume Title
12
Publisher
The Royal Society
Sponsorship
JSPS (21H02514, 19K16168)
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (19H05677)
Novo Nordisk (NNF19OC0056076)
Novo Nordisk Fonden (NNF19OC0056076)
ARC (DP190101941, 25915)
Villum Fonden (25915)
German Research Foundation (453188536)
Danmarks Grundforskningsfond (DNRF Chair 155, DNRF155)