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Ionic solutes impact collagen scaffold bioactivity.

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Pawelec, KM 
Wardale, RJ 
Best, SM 
Cameron, RE 


The structure of ice-templated collagen scaffolds is sensitive to many factors. By adding 0.5 wt% of sodium chloride or sucrose to collagen slurries, scaffold structure could be tuned through changes in ice growth kinetics and interactions of the solute and collagen. With ionic solutes (sodium chloride) the entanglements of the collagen molecule decreased, leading to fibrous scaffolds with increased pore size and decreased attachment of chondrocytes. With non-ionic solutes (sucrose) ice growth was slowed, leading to significantly reduced pore size and up-regulated cell attachment. This highlights the large changes in structure and biological function stimulated by solutes in ice-templating systems.



Biocompatible Materials, Cell Adhesion, Cells, Cultured, Chondrocytes, Collagen, Humans, Ice, Ionic Liquids, Materials Testing, Microscopy, Electron, Scanning, Porosity, Rheology, Sodium Chloride, Sucrose, Tissue Engineering, Tissue Scaffolds

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J Mater Sci Mater Med

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Springer Science and Business Media LLC
European Research Council (320598)
The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Gates Cambridge Trust, the Newton Trust, NIHR, and ERC Advanced Grant 320598 3D-E. A.H. holds a Daphne Jackson Fellowship funded by the University of Cambridge. Also, the authors thank Dr. S. Butler for help with the rheological measurements.