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In the Murine and Bovine Maternal Mammary Gland Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 is Activated in Clusters of Epithelial Cells around the Day of Birth.

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Hardwick, Laura JA 
Davies, Benjamin P 
Pensa, Sara 
Burge-Rogers, Maedee 
Davies, Claire 


Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins regulate mammary development. Here we investigate the expression of phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) in the mouse and cow around the day of birth. We present localised colocation analysis, applicable to other mammary studies requiring identification of spatially congregated events. We demonstrate that pSTAT3-positive events are multifocally clustered in a non-random and statistically significant fashion. Arginase-1 expressing cells, consistent with macrophages, exhibit distinct clustering within the periparturient mammary gland. These findings represent a new facet of mammary STAT3 biology, and point to the presence of mammary sub-microenvironments.



Macrophage, Mammary, Parturition, STAT3, Spatial statistics, Udder, Animals, Female, Cattle, Mammary Glands, Animal, Mice, Epithelial Cells, STAT3 Transcription Factor, Phosphorylation, Pregnancy, Parturition, Signal Transduction

Journal Title

J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia

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Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Anatomical Society (Unknown)
LJAH was funded by a Peterhouse Research Fellowship. BPD is funded by an Anatomical Society PhD Studentship awarded to KH. This research was funded by a grant awarded to KH by the British Veterinary Association Animal Welfare Foundation Norman Hayward Fund (NHF_2016_03_KH).