The Burden of Typhoid Fever in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Perspective.
While typhoid fever has largely been eliminated in high-income regions which have developed modern water, sanitation, and hygiene facilities, it remains a significant public health burden resulting in morbidity and mortality among millions of individuals in resource-constrained settings. Prevention and control efforts are needed that integrate several high-impact interventions targeting facilities and infrastructure, including those addressing improvements in sanitation, access to safe water, and planned urbanization, together with parallel efforts directed at effective strategies for use of typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCV). The use of TCVs is a critical tool with the potential of having a rapid impact on typhoid fever disease burden; their introduction will also serve as an important strategy to combat evolving antimicrobial resistance to currently available typhoid fever treatments. Well-designed epidemiological surveillance studies play a critical role in establishing the need for, and monitoring the impact of, typhoid fever control and prevention strategies implemented by public health authorities. Here, we present a perspective based on a narrative review of the impact of typhoid fever on morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa and discuss ongoing surveillance activities and the role of vaccination in prevention and control efforts.