Analog modulation by the flexoelectric effect in liquid crystals
We have solved the long-standing problems of stability and hysteresis, and we are able to obtain the homogeneous uniform lying helix structure in polymer-free cholesteric liquid crystals. This is instrumental for the present work to demonstrate the analog modulation at high speed and high precision. The device is configured for the transverse field switching wherein the substrate surface is flat. In addition to the response time of 10 ms at room temperature, we have obtained the R-squared and the adjusted R-squared as a measure of true sine wave for the sinusoidal responding transmissions from 1 Hz to 100 kHz that are all greater than 0.9993. In a Michelson interferometer, the phase shift at wavelength 633 nm after two passes has been measured to be equal to about 𝜋/9 at 4.6 V/µm for the chiral-doped nematic mixtures E7.