Application of Magnetic Resonance to Assess Lyophilized Drug Product Reconstitution
Purpose Dynamic in-situ proton (1H) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 1H T2-relaxometry experiments are described in an attempt to: (i) understand the physical processes, that occur during the reconstitution of lyophilized bovine serum albumen (BSA) and monoclonal antibody (mAb) proteins; and (ii) objectify the reconstitution time.
Methods Rapid two-dimensional 1H MRI and diffusion weighted MRI were used to study the temporal changes in solids dissolution and characterise water mass transport characteristics. One-shot T2 relaxation time measurements were also acquired in an attempt to quantify the reconstitution time. Both MRI data and T2-relaxation data were compared to standard visual observations currently adopted by industry. The 1H images were further referenced to MRI calibration data to give quantitative values of protein concentration and, percentage of remaining undissolved solids.
Results An algorithmic analysis the 1H T2-relaxation data shows it is possible to classify the reconstitution event into three regimes (undissolved, transitional and dissolved). Moreover, a combined analysis of the 2D 1H MRI and 1H T2-relaxation data gives a unique time point that characterises the onset of a reconstituted protein solution within well-defined error bars. These values compared favourably with those from visual observations. Diffusion weighted MRI showed that low concentration BSA and mAb samples showed distinct liquid-liquid phase separation attributed to two liquid layers with significant density gradients.
Conclusions T2 relaxation time distributions (whose interpretation is validated from the 2D 1H MR images) provides a quick and effective framework to build objective, quantitative descriptors of the reconstitution process that facilitate the interpretation of subjective visual observations currently adopted as the standard practice industry.