Electrotherapies for Glioblastoma.
Non-thermal, intermediate frequency (100-500 kHz) electrotherapies present a unique therapeutic strategy to treat malignant neoplasms. Here, pulsed electric fields (PEFs) which induce reversible or irreversible electroporation (IRE) and tumour-treating fields (TTFs) are reviewed highlighting the foundations, advances, and considerations of each method when applied to glioblastoma (GBM). Several biological aspects of GBM that contribute to treatment complexity (heterogeneity, recurrence, resistance, and blood-brain barrier(BBB)) and electrophysiological traits which are suggested to promote glioma progression are described. Particularly, the biological responses at the cellular and molecular level to specific parameters of the electrical stimuli are discussed offering ways to compare these parameters despite the lack of a universally adopted physical description. Reviewing the literature, a disconnect is found between electrotherapy techniques and how they target the biological complexities of GBM that make treatment difficult in the first place. An attempt is made to bridge the interdisciplinary gap by mapping biological characteristics to different methods of electrotherapy, suggesting important future research topics and directions in both understanding and treating GBM. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first paper that attempts an in-tandem assessment of the biological effects of different aspects of intermediate frequency electrotherapy methods, thus offering possible strategies toward GBM treatment.