Immunological considerations and challenges for regenerative cellular therapies.
The central goal of regenerative medicine is to replace damaged or diseased tissue with cells that integrate and function optimally. The capacity of pluripotent stem cells to produce unlimited numbers of differentiated cells is of considerable therapeutic interest, with several clinical trials underway. However, the host immune response represents an important barrier to clinical translation. Here we describe the role of the host innate and adaptive immune responses as triggers of allogeneic graft rejection. We discuss how the immune response is determined by the cellular therapy. Additionally, we describe the range of available in vitro and in vivo experimental approaches to examine the immunogenicity of cellular therapies, and finally we review potential strategies to ameliorate immune rejection. In conclusion, we advocate establishment of platforms that bring together the multidisciplinary expertise and infrastructure necessary to comprehensively investigate the immunogenicity of cellular therapies to ensure their clinical safety and efficacy.
Wellcome Trust (105924/Z/14/A)
Wellcome Trust (105924/Z/14/Z)
MRC (via King's College London) (RE15119)