Repository logo

Artifact removal by template subtraction enables recordings of the frequency following response in cochlear-implant users.

Published version

Repository DOI

Change log


Gransier, Robin 
Carlyon, Robert P 
Richardson, Matthew L 
Middlebrooks, John C 
Wouters, Jan 


Electrically evoked frequency-following responses (eFFRs) provide insight in the phase-locking ability of brainstem of cochlear-implant (CI) users. eFFRs can potentially be used to gain insight in the individual differences in the biological limitation on temporal encoding of the electrically stimulated auditory pathway, which can be inherent to the electrical stimulation itself and/or the degenerative processes associated with hearing loss. One of the major challenge of measuring eFFRs in CI users is the process of isolating the stimulation artifact from the neural response, as both the response and the artifact overlap in time and have similar frequency characteristics. Here we introduce a new artifact removal method based on template subtraction that successfully removes the stimulation artifacts from the recordings when CI users are stimulated with pulse trains from 128 to 300 pulses per second in a monopolar configuration. Our results show that, although artifact removal was successful in all CI users, the phase-locking ability of the brainstem to the different pulse rates, as assessed with the eFFR differed substantially across participants. These results show that the eFFR can be measured, free from artifacts, in CI users and that they can be used to gain insight in individual differences in temporal processing of the electrically stimulated auditory pathway.


Acknowledgements: All participants are thanked for participating in the study. Wouter David, Elise Verwaerde, and François Guérit are thanked for their help with the data collection. This work was supported by a Wellcome Trust Collaborative award in Science (RG91976) to R.P.C., J. C. M., and J. W.


Humans, Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Cochlear Implants, Cochlear Implantation, Deafness, Hearing Loss, Electric Stimulation

Journal Title

Sci Rep

Conference Name

Journal ISSN


Volume Title



Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Wellcome Trust (RG91976)