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Functional analyses of bacterial genomes found in Symbiodiniaceae genome assemblies

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Kawachi, Masanobu 
Shinzato, Chuya 


Bacterial–algal interactions strongly influence marine ecosystems. Bacterial communities in cultured dinoflagellates of the family Symbiodiniaceae have been characterized by metagenomics. However, little is known about whole‐genome analysis of marine bacteria associated with these dinoflagellates. We performed in silico analysis of four bacterial genomes from cultures of four dinoflagellates of the genera Symbiodinium, Breviolum, Cladocopium and Durusdinium. Comparative analysis showed that the former three contain the alphaproteobacterial family Parvibaculaceae and that the Durusdinium culture includes the family Sphingomonadaceae. There were no large genomic reductions in the alphaproteobacteria with genome sizes of 2.9–3.9 Mb, implying they are not obligate intracellular bacteria. Genomic annotations of three Parvibaculaceae detected the gene for diacetylchitobiose deacetylase (Dac), which may be involved in the degradation of dinoflagellate cell surfaces. They also had metabolic genes for dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) in the nitrogen (N) cycle and cobalamin (vitamin B12) biosynthetic genes in the salvage pathway. Those three characters were not found in the Sphingomonadaceae genome. Predicted biosynthetic gene clusters for secondary metabolites indicated that the Parvibaculaceae likely produce the same secondary metabolites. Our study suggests that the Parvibaculaceae is a major resident of Symbiodiniaceae cultures with antibiotics.


Publication status: Published

Funder: OIST's support for the Marine Genomics Unit

Funder: Herchel Smith Postdoctoral Research Fellowship


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John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (20H03235, 20K05798, 23H02132)