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Mismatch of Biological and Social Time in Cocaine-Addicted Men.

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Fernando, Jeevan 
Ersche, Karen D 


INTRODUCTION: Chronotype describes a person's preferential activity pattern during a 24-hour period, which may not be in line with their social lifestyle. A mismatch between biological and social time is known as "social jetlag," which has negative effects on wellbeing. Cocaine influences a person's activity levels, but very little is known about possible changes in chronotype of patients with cocaine use disorder (CUD). Here, we aimed to shed light on self-reported changes in chronotype in patients with CUD and the clinical implications. METHODS: A total of 90 men from the local community were recruited; about half of the sample met the criteria for CUD, while the other half were healthy without a personal history of substance use disorder. Participants completed the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire along with questionnaires about mental health, daily fatigue, and drug/alcohol use. RESULTS: Half of the CUD patients fell into the category of late chronotype - a significantly larger proportion than their healthy peers. Late "night owls" tended to have started using cocaine at an earlier age than other chronotypes; a finding that was not observed with tobacco, cannabis, or alcohol. Drug use severity in CUD patients did not differ across chronotypes. CUD patients (52%) did not have a preferred time of day to use cocaine. The mismatch between social and biological time was significantly greater in CUD patients and unrelated to drug use or mental health status. CONCLUSION: CUD appears to be associated with disruptions in chronotype which are, contrary to a widely held view, not reflected by using patterns or addiction severity.



Addiction, Chronotype, Circadian rhythm, Sleep, Social jetlag, Male, Humans, Circadian Rhythm, Sleep, Jet Lag Syndrome, Substance-Related Disorders, Surveys and Questionnaires, Cocaine

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Eur Addict Res

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S. Karger AG
National Institute for Health and Care Research (IS-BRC-1215-20014)
The study was funded by the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre (BRC-1215-20014) and NIHR Applied Research Centre. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NIHR or the Department of Health and Social Care.