Supercomputers against strong coupling in gravity with curvature and torsion

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jats:titleAbstract</jats:title>jats:pMany theories of gravity are spoiled by strongly coupled modes: the high computational cost of Hamiltonian analysis can obstruct the identification of these modes. A computer algebra implementation of the Hamiltonian constraint algorithm for curvature and torsion theories is presented. These non-Riemannian or Poincaré gauge theories suffer notoriously from strong coupling. The implementation forms a package (the ‘Hamiltonian Gauge Gravity Surveyor’ – jats:italicHiGGS</jats:italic>) for the jats:italicxAct</jats:italic> tensor manipulation suite in jats:italicMathematica</jats:italic>. Poisson brackets can be evaluated in parallel, meaning that Hamiltonian analysis can be done on silicon, and at scale. Accordingly jats:italicHiGGS</jats:italic> is designed to survey the whole Lagrangian space with high-performance computing resources (clusters and supercomputers). To demonstrate this, the space of ‘outlawed’ Poincaré gauge theories is surveyed, in which a massive parity-even/odd vector or parity-odd tensor torsion particle accompanies the usual graviton. The survey spans possible configurations of teleparallel-style multiplier fields which might be used to kill-off the strongly coupled modes, with the results to be analysed in subsequent work. All brackets between the known primary and secondary constraints of all theories are made available for future study. Demonstrations are also given for using jats:italicHiGGS</jats:italic> – on a desktop computer – to run the Dirac–Bergmann algorithm on specific theories, such as Einstein–Cartan theory and its minimal extensions.</jats:p>


Acknowledgements: This work was performed using resources provided by the Cambridge Service for Data Driven Discovery (CSD3) operated by the University of Cambridge Research Computing Service (, provided by Dell EMC and Intel using Tier-2 funding from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (capital grant EP/T022159/1), and DiRAC funding from the Science and Technology Facilities Council ( This manuscript was improved by the kind suggestions of Amel Duraković and Will Handley, and I would like to thank Manuel Hohmann for useful discussions. I am grateful for the kind hospitality of Leiden University and the Lorentz Institute, and the support of Girton College, Cambridge. The current version of HiGGS incorporates elements of Cyril Pitrou’s code from the repository at

5107 Particle and High Energy Physics, 51 Physical Sciences
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The European Physical Journal C
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Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EP/T022159/1)