Integrating Genetics and the Plasma Proteome to Predict the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes
Abstract: Purpose of the Review: Proteins are the central layer of information transfer from genome to phenome and represent the largest class of drug targets. We review recent advances in high-throughput technologies that provide comprehensive, scalable profiling of the plasma proteome with the potential to improve prediction and mechanistic understanding of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recent Findings: Technological and analytical advancements have enabled identification of novel protein biomarkers and signatures that help to address challenges of existing approaches to predict and screen for T2D. Genetic studies have so far revealed putative causal roles for only few of the proteins that have been linked to T2D, but ongoing large-scale genetic studies of the plasma proteome will help to address this and increase our understanding of aetiological pathways and mechanisms leading to diabetes. Summary: Studies of the human plasma proteome have started to elucidate its potential for T2D prediction and biomarker discovery. Future studies integrating genomic and proteomic data will provide opportunities to prioritise drug targets and identify pathways linking genetic predisposition to T2D development.
Funder: University of Cambridge